By Mustafa Merter


Genetic Factors:

After the most “striking” research has been published by Dean Hamer (Xq28), in 1993, the “blessed” media thought that it said the last word.34

Five years later, Sander’s work which verified Hamer’s work (1998) and Hu’s summary passed unnoticed.35

Thus, the “born this way” theory was accepted. Hamer’s views opposing the idea were even censored. In the Scientific American, to the question “Is it possible to reduce homosexuality only to biological reasons?” in 1995, Hamer replied “Absolutely not; as we know from researches on twins, half or more of sexual tendency cannot be based on hereditary factors”; however, this reply was not given much attention in the media. The purpose was as always to cause a mental dimness through the tactic of disinformation.

They were successful with this tactic too. In the 1970’s, while 10% of homosexuals believe the “born this way” theory, this rate increased to 35% in the 1980’s.

Neuro-anatomical Reasons:

In 1991, neuro-anatomist Simon LeVay claimed that a group of neurons located in the INAH3 (interstitial nucleus of ant. hypothalamus) area of the front hypothalamus might show differences between the sexes in terms of size, in his postmortem studies (this area is bigger in men compared to women, Laura Allen, 1989). While in homosexuals the INAH3 seems smaller, 3 studies conducted later on did not confirm this. It is interesting that both Hamer and LeVay are homosexual.36

Twin Studies:

In 1991, the rate of homosexuality was 52% in maternal twins and 22% in fraternal twins, as observed by Baillard and Pillard, although this has not been confirmed in the studies conducted later on.37 Bearman and Bruckman come to the conclusion of a much lower rate of 7.7%.38

Neuro-endocrinologial Factors:

The effect of intrauterine testosterone and the bone structure studies in relation to this (RD:4D index) have not given meaningful results either.39

Birth order and the Influence of the Brother:

Blanchard and Klassen (1997) claim that every older brother increases the possibility of being a homosexual by 33%. According to the researchers, the reason is the immune reaction developed in the mother each time after giving birth to a male child. The mother’s antibodies negatively affect the structures which determine sexual tendency in the fetus’s CNS (central nervous system). This theory has been criticized since it does not involve meaningful correlations.40

Abuse and Similar Childhood Traumas:

The New Zealand study of E. Wells and A. Magnus show that, there are 3 times higher similar childhood traumas in homosexuals.41 What conclusion can we make of that? All the researches (as of the date the book was written, May 2012), cannot base homosexuality on a single reason. To say “you were born this way” is the indication that insufficient researches have been done or an ideological attitude is adopted. In summary:

Genetic structure + CNS neuro-anatomy and physiology + hormonal effects before birth = natural tendency

Parent + sibling relationships + childhood/teenage experiences = environment ENVIRONMENT + NATURAL TENDENCY = HOMOSEXUAL TENDENCY



34 Hamer et al., “A linkage between DNA markers on the X chromosome and male sexual orientation”, Science, 1993, July 16; 261(5119): 321-7.

35 DH. Hamer; S. Hu; VL. Magnuson; N. Hu; A.M.L. Pattatucci; (1993): “A linkage between DNA markers on the X chromosome and male sexual orientation”, Science, 261: 321 327.

36 S. LeVay; (1991): “A difference in hypothalamus structure between heterosexual and homosexual men”, Science, 53: 1034-1037.

37 Wilson and Rahman, 2005, p. 47

38 P.S. Bearman; H. Bruckner, (2002), American Journal of Sociology.

39 B.S., Mustanski; M. L., Chivers and J. M. Bailey, (2002). “A Critical Review of Recent Biological Research on Human Sexual Orientation”, Annu Rev Sex, 13, 89-140.

40 R. Blanchard, P. Klassen, “H – Y antigen and homosexuality in men”, J. Theor. Biol., 1997, 185: 373-378.

41 J. Elisabeth Wells, A. McGee Magnus, Annette L. Beautrais, “Multiple Aspects of Sexual Orientation: Prevalence and Sociodemographic Correlates in a New Zealand National Survey”, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2011, 40 (1): 155-168 .


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